Cell Lines For Studying Serine-threonine Phosphatase

What are Serine/Theonine phosphatases?

Definition: Serine/Theonine phosphatases are metal-requiring enzymes that regulate many pathways involved in cell proliferation, programmed cell death (apoptosis), embryonic development, and cell differentiation.

Reversible protein phosphorylation is widely used by cells to either propagate or terminate intracellular signal transduction pathways. The addition or removal of a negatively charged phosphate can influence the size, charge and conformation of a protein and/or its interactions with other proteins.

Whereas kinases use ATP to phosphorylate amino acid side chains in target proteins, phosphatases hydrolyse phosphates off these residues. Kinases and phosphatases work in concert to switch the function of a protein on or off and so are essential for homeostatic balance of cell signalling. Phosphatases have been characterized as having activity toward serine and threonine residues, or toward tyrosine residues.

Serine/Theonine phosphatases are grouped into two gene families, the PPP and the PPM gene families, based on sequence analysis.

PPP Gene family

The PP1 subfamily is comprised of a catalytic subunit that interacts with several proteins including targeting subunits and inhibitor proteins. The PP2A subfamily are heterotrimers comprised of a catalytic subunit and two regulatory subunits.

PPM Gene Family

This group corresponds to the PP2C enzymes, which are activated by high concentrations of Mg. This subfamily is less well studied that the PPP group, and little is known about their regulation.

Many phosphatases are key in the development of pathological pathways where inhibition can reverse or delay the onset of human diseases. Abnormal serine/threonine phosphatase activity has been linked with several diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the pharmacological manipulation of phosphatase activity is an attractive strategy for the treatment of such conditions.

Examples of popular knockout cell lines

AKAP1

AKAP11

AKAP9

ANKRD28

ANKRD44

ANKRD52

KIAA1244

BCL2L2

CD2BP2

CDC25C

CENPE

CHCHD3

CHCHD6

CLCN7

CNST

CSMD1

CSRNP2

CTDNEP1

CTDSP1

CTDSP2

CTDSPL

DDX31

DLG2

DZIP3

ELFN1

ELFN2

FARP1

FKBP15

ILKAP

PDP1

PHLPP1

PHLPP2

PPEF1

PPM1A

PPM1B

PPM1D

PPM1E

PPM1F

PPM1G

PPM1H

PPM1J

PPM1K

PPM1L

PPM1M

PPM1N

PPP1CA

PPP1R13B

PPP1R14A

PPP1R14C

PPP1R15A

PPP1R16A

PPP1R16B

PPP1R18

PPP1R26

PPP1R21

PPP1R32

PPP1R37

PPP1R3B

PPP1R3D

PPP1R3F

PPP1R9A

PPP1R9B

PPP2CB

PPP2R1B

PPP2R2B

PPP2R2C

PPP2R2D

PPP2R3A

PPP2R5A

PPP2R5B

PPP2R5C

PPP2R5D

PPP2R5E

PPP3CA

PPP3CB

PPP3CC

PPP4R1

PPP4R2

PPP4R4

PPP5C

PPP6R1

PPP6R2

SH3GLB1

TP53BP2

ZFYVE16

UBLCP1

PPP1R1A

PPP1R14B

 

 

 

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For offline access, many of our popular cell lines that are usually available for immediate delivery are listed in our downloadable our catalog - your gene edited cell line may already have been created!

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