Histone Acetylation

Histones are basic proteins that package and order the DNA into structures called nucleosomes. Nucleosomes consist of an octamer of histone proteins and a long “tail” known as the histone tail. Post-translational modifications of the histone tails affect the packaging state and thus have an impact on the transcriptional activation state.

Histone Modification Epigenetics

One key modification is histone acetylation of the N-terminal tail and this is regulated by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Acetylation is a type of epigenetic marker of chromatin and results in the condensed chromatin “relaxing” and in this state it is known as euchromatin, this allows greater access to the DNA for proteins such as transcription factors and results in greater levels of gene transcription.

HDACs are enzymes which reverse the acetylation of histones, resulting in tightening of the chromatin (heterochromatin) and decreases in gene transcription. Imbalance of histone acetylation is a common aspect of many disorders and HDAC inhibitors are of interest for treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic disorders.

Histone Acetylation Diagram

Cell Lines for Studying Histone Acetylation

Figure 1. The following HDAC knockout cell lines were analyzed by Western blotting using the following antibodies:

HDAC1clone 1013-10Abcam ab187947
HDAC2clone 1012-4Abcam ab187941
HDAC3clone 579-3Abcam Ab7030
HDAC8clone 1015-10Santa Cruz sc11405

Source: Dr. Christian Seiser, MPFL, Medical University of Vienna

Histone Acetylation blot
Examples of popular knockout cell lines
HDAC1HDAC4HDAC9SIRT5
HDAC10HDAC5SIRT1SIRT6
HDAC11HDAC6SIRT2 
HDAC2HDAC7SIRT3 
HDAC3HDAC8SIRT4 

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